Anova has been implementing Key Populations surveillance projects in South Africa with the technical support of the University of California San Francisco. These surveillance projects are generally cross-sectional studies and more specifically integrated bio-behavioural surveys with population size estimation.

They are carried out on specific Key Population groups using either responded driven sampling or time location sampling methods.

The main objectives of the surveillance projects are to:

  • Measure the prevalence and incidence of HIV and their associated risk behaviours among a specific target key population in select South African cities and surrounding geographic areas
  • Estimate the population size and distribution of a specific target key population; and identify and assess determinants of access and utilisation of health and social welfare programmes in South Africa among a specific target Key Population

To date, Anova has successfully carried out surveillance among female sex workers, men who have sex with other men and long-distance truck drivers. The current surveillance work is focused on persons who inject drugs. In future, a repeat of the population groups already surveyed will be done.

Whilst the past and current surveys have provided the baselined strategic information for Key Population, future surveillance work will help establish the trends and changes taking place within the epidemic as a result of various responses by various actors.

Anova’s surveillance work provides the evidence- base for Key Population programmes as well as policy formulation. It also helps in evaluating programmes coverage and in identify the gaps in programmes.